1. Everyone you know respects you. This disgusts you.
2. The door is white and the day is hot. This pleases you.
3. A Jewish man believes you are his friend. This disgusts you.
4. You are a man. A man! A man is a man like a tree is a tree.
5. A Greek man is shouting incomprehensibly at you. This is why you are drunk.
6. You have lost something in a war. This is why you are drunk.
7. A woman is looking at you. She is wearing her hat in a manner you find unbearably independent and mannish. You despise her.
8. You are standing on top of a mountain. The mountain admires you for climbing it. You do not care what the mountain thinks of you, and you light a cigar. The cigar admires you for smoking it. You sneer casually at the sun. Somewhere there is a white door.
9. You are shooting a large animal but thinking about a woman. You cannot shoot her. This infuriates you.
10. You met a homosexual once in Paris. It took you two years snowshoeing across the backcountry in Michigan to recover.
11. You have said goodbye to a young girl with a white face on a black train. You are ready to die.
12. Waiter bring me another rum
13. You hate every single one of your friends. You have no friends. You are alone at sea. How you hate the sea, but how you respect the fish inside of it. How you hate the kelp. How indifferent you are to the coral.
14. Your stomach hurts; that is how you know you are alive.
15. You are standing in a river and something is coming to kill you. You will welcome it with open arms and a booming laugh when it comes.
Dear Readers: I prefer not to post links to make you go to another site but this one would not copy. It is worth a look and fun. Do you agree re the 7 most popular claimed? Thanks for reading! Best, Christine
What was the Lost Generation? (And is this Term a Misnomer?)
The Lost Generation refers to writers and thinkers whose youths were overshadowed by the Great War, leaving them feeling lost and eager to escape the US for Europe.
Apr 8, 2023 • By Catherine Dent, MA 20th and 21st Century Literary Studies, BA English Literature
Though never a closed and coherent movement as such, the Lost Generation refers to a group of (mostly, though not exclusively) American writers and thinkers who found themselves disillusioned with and cast adrift from post-war American society during the 1920s, often settling in Paris where they pursued more artistically liberated lifestyles. When used in its literary context, the term “the lost generation” has been attributed to Gertrude Stein by Ernest Hemingway. Hemingway himself, however, took exception to the term. This article lists six notable writers and thinkers often associated with the lost generation and asks whether – as Hemingway suspected – the lost generation should be considered something of a misnomer.
1. Gertrude Stein
Though she was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania on 3 February 1874, Gertrude Stein spent time in Vienna and Paris as a child before moving to Paris as an adult in 1903, where she would remain until her death in 1947. Here, she hosted a literary and artistic salon, where she gathered around her the leading artists and writers in Paris at the time, including (at various points) Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Henri Matisse, Francis Picabia, and Carl Van Vechten.
It was also in Paris where she met another American abroad who would go on to have a profound impact on the rest of her life. On 8 September 1907, Stein met Alice Toklas, with Toklas having just arrived in Paris that very day. They soon became lovers, with Toklas taking on the domestic duties, and would remain together until Stein’s death. Toklas developed a passion for French cuisine and would cook elaborate meals not just for Stein but for Stein’s esteemed artistic and literary guests. And while Stein entertained the members of her salon, Toklas entertained the wives and partners of the artists and writers in attendance.
Stein’s commitment to Parisian life was unparalleled by anyone else associated with the lost generation. Even during the Second World War, when France came under Nazi occupation in June 1940, Stein resisted the exhortations of friends and family members to leave Paris and return to the United States, claiming that to leave Paris “would be awfully uncomfortable and I am fussy about my food.”
2. Sylvia Beach
Born on 14 March 1887 in Baltimore, Maryland, Sylvia Beach, like Gertrude Stein, had spent time in Paris as a child when the Beach family moved there when her father, Sylvester, was made an assistant minister of the American Church in Paris in 1901. The family returned to the United States in 1906, and during the First World War, Sylvia worked for the Balkan Commission of the Red Cross. Following her time spent in Europe as part of her work with the war effort, she decided to return to Paris to study contemporary French literature.
It was in Paris at this time that she met Adrienne Monnier, owner of the bookshop and lending library La Maison des Amis des Livres. The two became lovers and stayed together until Monnier’s death by suicide in 1955. With Monnier’s help, she went on to found the famous Shakespeare and Company bookshop.
Here, she was approached by James Joyce, who asked Beach to help publish his novel, Ulysses. At her own financial and personal risk, Beach published Ulysses in 1922. A year later, she was also instrumental in publishing and disseminating Hemingway’s first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems.
However, Beach received little financial gain from the publication of Ulysses. Despite having published his novel, advocated on his behalf during copyright disputes, and contacted potential reviewers, Joyce sold the rights to his book to Random House.
3. T. S. Eliot
While most members of the lost generation are associated with Paris, T. S. Eliot’s stint in the French capital was relatively brief. From 1910 to 1911, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne, where he was influenced by Henri Bergson and Henri Alban-Fournier. He continued to visit Paris after this stay.
London, rather than Paris, was to be the European city where Eliot settled. He first came to England in 1914 to take up a scholarship at Merton College, Oxford University, where he was to study for his doctorate. Merton College had a relatively large quota of American students at the time. Nonetheless, Eliot struggled to feel at home in Oxford and instead spent most of his time in London, where he met Ezra Pound and other important literary figures of the time.
His marriage to the English Vivienne Haigh-Wood in 1915 also further committed Eliot to live in London. It was to prove an unhappy union, however, and Eliot channeled this unhappiness – as well as a sense of wider cultural disenchantment – into his seminal 1922 poem, “The Waste Land.”
Even once Eliot and Vivienne had separated; however, Eliot remained in London, taking British citizenship and converting from Unitarianism to Anglicanism in 1927. While other members of the lost generation valued Paris for the freedom it allowed them in contrast with American society, Eliot seemed determined to ensconce himself in British establishment values during his time in London, declaring himself a “classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic in religion.”
4. E. E. Cummings
Edward Estlin Cummings was born on 14 October 1894 to Unitarian parents (much like T. S. Eliot), who recognized and nurtured his literary talents from a young age. Also like Eliot, Cummings studied at Harvard, graduating magna cum laude in 1915.
In 1917, he enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps in order to support the war effort. Before taking up his official duties, however, he spent five weeks exploring Paris and fell in love with the city. His relationship with France was not always smooth sailing, however. During his work in the Ambulance Corps, he was imprisoned in a French military detention camp in Normandy, as the French officials suspected his loyalties. He later drew on his experience in military detention in his 1922 novel, The Enormous Room.
Upon his return to the United States in 1918, he was drafted into the army. Following his release, he returned to Paris in 1921, where he lived for the next two years. Throughout the 1920s and 30s, he continued to visit Paris. Nonetheless, Cummings never settled there, preferring to visit regularly while maintaining close ties to America.
5. F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald is most famous for his novelistic depictions of the American jazz age in all its flamboyance and excess. However, his most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, was finished during his travels in Europe.
Fitzgerald left America for Europe in 1924, along with his wife Zelda and young daughter Frances. Having already begun work on The Great Gatsby in 1923, he finished the novel during their stay on the French Riviera. Here, marital tensions with Zelda reached their peak, and the family moved around Europe, settling first in Rome before splitting their time between the French Riviera and Paris.
It was during their time in Paris that Fitzgerald met other figures now associated with the lost generation, including Gertrude Stein, Sylvia Beach, and Ernest Hemingway. While Fitzgerald and Hemingway struck up a friendship, Hemingway disliked Zelda, believing that she hampered Fitzgerald’s ambitions to be a serious writer. It was true that their marriage had never been a particularly happy one, but when the Fitzgerald family returned to the United States in 1926, their marriage was in tatters.
Things were soon to get even worse for Fitzgerald during the Great Depression. His tales of flappers and flamboyant parties seemed out of touch with Depression-era America. As the critic Matthew Josephson quipped in 1933, most Americans could not afford to vacation in Paris and drink champagne. While this, of course, was true of most Americans even before the Depression, it was even more evident in light of America’s economic downturn. Upon his death in 1940, Fitzgerald believed that his career as a writer had been a failure.
6. Ernest Hemingway
Born 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, Ernest Hemingway is often seen as an all-American writer. However, some of his earliest formative experiences were owed to his service as a volunteer ambulance driver on the Italian frontline in the First World War. Having been rejected from the US army due to poor eyesight, Hemingway went on to be awarded the Italian War Merit Cross (the Croce al Merito di Guerra), aged just eighteen. His wartime experiences were later fictionalized in his novel, A Farewell to Arms.
After the war, he returned to America, though he was eager to pursue his dream of becoming a writer in Paris. The move to Paris had also been advised by Sherwood Anderson, and, as life in Paris was comparatively cheap at that time, there were also practical financial motivations, such as a favorable exchange rate – as well as the city’s literary and artistic cachet – for Hemingway to take into account.
In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, and the couple moved to Paris. Working as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly, here in Paris, Hemingway met Ezra Pound, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein and became part of a community of expat writers who would come to be known as the lost generation. As a matter of fact, Stein became godmother to Hemingway’s son, Jack, and he popularized the term “the lost generation” (which had been coined by Stein) in his 1926 novel, The Sun Also Rises. However, by the time Hemingway left Paris in 1927, he and Stein were estranged.
This article began by posing the question: is the lost generation something of a misnomer? Certainly, Hemingway came to think so. While the main characters in The Sun Also Rises can be described as disillusioned and adrift, the novel’s title is taken from Ecclesiastes, which is quoted as one of the novel’s epigraphs: “One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth abideth forever… The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to the place where he arose…” (see Further Reading, Hemingway).
This passage is ironically juxtaposed with Stein’s statement: “You are all a lost generation.” By placing these two statements side by side, Hemingway seems to ironize Stein’s pronouncement, suggesting as he does that, for all the social upheaval and the horrors of the First World War, this generation had emerged from the war-scarred but stronger, and certainly not “lost.”
Cummings, E. E., selected poems: 1923-1958 (London: Faber and Faber, 1997).
Eliot, T. S., The Complete Poems and Plays (London: Faber and Faber, 2004).
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby (London: Penguin, 2000).
Hemingway, Ernest, Fiesta: The Sun Also Rises (London: Arrow Books, 2004).
Hemingway, Ernest, A Moveable Feast (London: Arrow Books, 2000).
Rhys, Jean, Good Morning, Midnight (London: Penguin, 2000).
By Catherine DentMA 20th and 21st Century Literary Studies, BA English LiteratureCatherine holds a first-class BA from Durham University and an MA with distinction, also from Durham, where she specialized in the representation of glass objects in the work of Virginia Woolf. In her spare time, she enjoys writing fiction, reading, and spending time with her rescue dog, Finn.
Hemingway Reflects on Writing and Death in Unpublished Letters
THE RAAB COLLECTION
Hemingway’s letter from July 29, 1955
Later that year, Mary Lou wrote to the author to ask about a trip to Cuba that summer. Hemingway, who was filming The Old Man and the Sea, sent back a lengthy reply. After two recent plane crashes, the Nobel Prize winner ponders life and death In October of 1955, Mary Lou again reached out to Hemingway. He responded with another typed letter, this one referring to his fear of flying, manifested in his recent, nearly deadly crashes while on safari, as well as big game hunting, hurricanes, and a commentary on death and, remarkably, his belief in the afterlife. He urged her to be careful. “No second thoughts will help you and when you are dead you are dead for a long time.”
Hemingway: two unpublished letters appear to his girlfriend
The Raab Collection, an antiquarian gallery in Ardmore, in the state of Pennsylvania, which specializes in historical documents, has announced that it has come into possession of two “powerful and revealing” letters from Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) to a girl, concerning writing , life, filming “The Old Man and the Sea,” fishing, traveling, and perhaps most importantly, death and the afterlife (“No second thoughts will help you, and when you’re dead you’re dead for a long time,” he wrote), including his near-death experience in two plane crashes.
They also shed light on a touching and interesting episode from the life of the US writer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. The letters have been kept by the recipient and her family since they were written in 1955 and are apparently unpublished. The Raab Collection intends to sell them for the first time this spring. Hemingway wrote both letters while living at Finca Vigia, his estate outside Havana, Cuba, to an American student named Mary Lou Firle, whom he had met shortly before. Mary Lou kept her letters, hiding them in an upstairs closet, which saved them from ruin when Hurricane Sandy slammed into her family’s Long Island home in 2012, flooding it.
“These letters let us discover the daily life of Hemingway and the people he inspired and touched,” said Nathan Raab, director of the Raab Collection and author of the recent book “The Hunt for History” (Scribner, 2020). “It was a pleasure to find them and learn about Mary Lou’s life.” In January 1955, Mary Lou, a sophomore at the City College of New York, traveled to Havana to meet her boyfriend Morris, a naval officer on leave. While she was on the island she intended to find a way to meet Hemingway. After Morris’s departure, she telephoned the writer unexpectedly, who, due to a misunderstanding of her, which she encouraged, assumed that she had been referred by a mutual acquaintance. The writer sent his chauffeur to pick her up and they spent an afternoon together. She visited her home and the two agreed to keep in touch. He even promised to send her animal skins from a recent hunt. Hemingway jokingly gave her the nickname “Black Kraut”, due to her resemblance to Marlene Dietrich, whom he called “Marlene Dietrich”, as well as her tan and her German origins. Later that year, she Mary Lou wrote to the Nobel Laureate asking him to take a trip to Cuba that summer. Hemingway, who was filming The Old Man and the Sea, sent her a long reply. After two recent plane crashes, the Nobel laureate reflected on life and death. In October 1955, Mary Lou turned to Hemingway again.
Dear Friends : I am happy to report that Hemingway’s Daughter is being made into an AUDIO BOOK by Tantor Books, A Division of Recorded Books (RBMedia, Inc) bought the audio rights a few weeks ago. I do have the right to approve the narrator. I am very excited about it and will let all know –if interested–when it is available. The book has been endorsed by Mariel Hemingway.
Much thanks to everyone for reading and caring about Hemingway more than 60 years after his death.
The Old Man and the CTE? Ernest Hemingway had ‘nine or ten major concussions’, once HEADBUTTED his way out of a burning plane and got a ‘belting’ by Dodgers pitcher Hugh Casey… so did the disease that haunts the NFL lead him to suicide at 61?
Alcohol, PTSD and depression have been linked to Ernest Hemingway’s suicide
But now, his granddaughter believes that the author was struggling with CTE
Heavy drinking, depression and PTSD from serving in World War I have all been linked as factors in Ernest Hemingway’s suicide at 61, over 60 years ago.
The author of classics such as The Sun Also Rises, The Old Man and the Sea and For Whom the Bell Tolls shot himself in the head in his kitchen in Idaho, 19 days before his birthday. His family were planning a visit with him to celebrate.
Hemingway struggled with an array of health issues across his life but another might have gone undetected, according to his granddaughter Mariel, in an interview with The Spectator. CTE, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, the degenerative brain disease that catches up with all kinds of elite sportsmen – boxers, footballers, soccer players – might also have got Hemingway too.
Repeated blows to the head cause CTE and sports stars, specifically in the NFL, have been victims of the disease. In 2017, a study by the Journal of the American Medical Association found CTE in 110 out of 111 brains from footballers who had played in the NFL and donated their brains to science after their death.
So, back to Hemingway. There is a long list of theories around his death, on top of those previously mentioned – several family members of his also took their own life including his brother, sister and later, his granddaughter. He also had hemochromatosis, a genetic disorder involving iron metabolism that eventually causes memory loss.
Ernest Hemingway’s suicide at the age of 61, in 1961, has been debated extensively since
Hemingway loved boxing and he was known to back himself with his fists against most people
Hemingway volunteered as an ambulance driver in World War 1 and was knocked unconscious by a mortar shell
But Hemingway loved sport and loved a fight. In his school days in Illinois, he was a lineman for his football team. At 18, he fought in World War I and was blown off his feet and knocked unconscious by a mortar shell in an explosion that killed two soldiers.
A car accident in London once left Hemingway concussed and needing over 50 stitches to repair a head injury. Another time, a skylight collapsed on top of him, leaving him with the famed scar on his forehead.
According to Dr Andrew Farah, who has studied Hemingway’s head injuries, in The Spectator: ‘That was one of nine or ten major concussions we know of. There were many more subconcussive hits to his head, and we’ve now learned that multiple subconcussive blows can have the same effect as concussions.’
Compare that to the case of Miami Dolphins quarterback Tua Tagovailoa, who last season was technically in concussion protocol twice but before those two officially diagnosed incidents, appeared to be worryingly unsteady on his feet after a high hit in a game against the Bills.
Four days later, he went off on a stretcher in a neck brace after another heavy tackle in a game against the Cincinnati Brown – his first official concussion of the 2022 season.
Dr. Bennet Omalu, who first discovered CTE, urged him to retire there and then.
‘If you love your life, if you love your family, you love your kids — if you have kids — it’s time to gallantly walk away. Go find something else to do. Twenty billion dollars is not worth more than your brain,’ he said via TMZ.
Tagovailoa played on, got concussed again on Christmas Day and didn’t feature again for the Dolphins in the season but will play as usual in 2023.
So if, by today’s standard, one concussion is enough for a 24-year-old elite athlete to quit football, how much of an accumulative impact would ‘nine or ten major concussions’ have had on Hemingway, on top of everything else?
The scientist that discovered CTE told Tua Tagovailoa to retire after a head injury saw him leave a game last September on a stretcher, in a neck brace – Hemingway is believed to have had ‘nine or 10’ serious concussions in his life
Hemingway is reported to have once ‘headbutted his way out of a cockpit’ after a plane crash
Hemingway died at the age of 61, shooting himself in the head with a shotgun in his kitchen
The Spectator also reports on Hemingway’s love of boxing and a couple of infamous scraps. Once, Great Gatsby author F.Scott Fitzgerald was a timekeeper in a fight where Hemingway was floored by a hit to the temple.
‘My writing is nothing, my boxing is everything,’ he once famously said. Apparently he thought he could be a professional if he had wanted to be.
Hemingway also survived two plane crashes in two days, the second of which he had to headbutt his way out the cockpit that was filling with smoke.
It is all part of a dossier of evidence which offers some form of explanation to his granddaughter of how the author met the end that he did.
‘It makes a lot of sense. I hadn’t realized he played football,’ Mairel Hemingway said to The Spectator. ‘Yes, I think so (if he had CTE). It makes total sense that getting hit in the head has effects on the brain.
‘He lived life very hard. That’s a factor for sure… I think a lot of things contributed. He had paranoia late in his life, and at the time there was no way to understand the science of what was happening to his brain.
‘Eventually you can’t fight it. The depression took over. He was known for courage, but how do you go up against those demons?’
In 1959, Hemingway asked A. E. Hotchner to help edit a piece for Life magazine on bullfighting. Hotchner said he found Hemingway ‘unusually hesitant, disorganized, and confused’. He was treated for hypertension in a clinic and even had electroconvulsive therapy in 1960. Three months before he died, he was found holding a shotgun in his kitchen before being returned to hospital for more treatment.
The next time he was released, Hemingway committed suicide two days later. He shot himself in the head that July morning in 1961. The condition that his brain was in will never be known for sure.
Netflix is eying a new war adaptation of the classic Ernest Hemingway novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, What’s on Netflix has learned.
A new For Whom The Bell Tolls movie has been developing for at least two decades, with Game of Thrones co-creator and co-showrunner David Benioff attached to the project in the early 2000s. Back then, the project was with Warner Bros, and Leonardo DiCaprio was tipped to play a role in the movie in ’05. There’s little record of what happened to the project after this, and according to Cinema.com, “DiCaprio won’t commit to the project without a director, however, and none is attached so far.”
David Benioff since mentioned the book in his 2016 article for the New York Times, looking at his favorite ten books of all time. In the segment on For Whom the Bell Tolls, the writer states:
“Yes, a few of the lines are easy to mock. (“I love thee and thou art so lovely and so wonderful and so beautiful and it does such things to me to be with thee that I feel as though I wanted to die when I am loving thee.”) Yes, the constant use of “thee” is grating. But my love for this novel isn’t rational. I have no interest in defending it. I loved it from first to last. No final page has ever left me as shattered.”
In 2022, we were first told that an adaptation might be in the works at Netflix via two copyright registrations with Universal Pictures and Warner Bros. The Universal registration specifically mentioned a “Short-Form One Picture License.”
Fast forward to 2023, and we’ve learned that David Benioff is eyed to continue writing the script for Netflix while long-term collaborator Alan Taylor is eyed to direct.
As you may know, David Benioff and D. B. Weiss and currently working with Netflix under an extensive overall deal ever since Game of Thrones wrapped on HBO. Thus far, the pair have (either together or separately) worked on Metal Lords, The Chair, and Leslie Jones: Time Machine.
Alan Taylor is the writer, producer, and director who worked in 7 episodes of Game of Thrones and was the director on The Many Saints of Newark, Terminator Genisys, and Thor: The Dark World.
What’s For Whom The Bell Tolls about?
First published in 1940, here’s the official synopsis for the book written by Ernest Hemingway, per GoodReads:
“The story of Robert Jordan, a young American in the International Brigades attached to an antifascist guerilla unit in the mountains of Spain, it tells of loyalty and courage, love and defeat, and the tragic death of an ideal. In his portrayal of Jordan’s love for the beautiful Maria and his superb account of El Sordo’s last stand, in his brilliant travesty of La Pasionaria and his unwillingness to believe in blind faith, Hemingway surpasses his achievement in The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms to create a work at once rare and beautiful, strong and brutal, compassionate, moving and wise.”